Understand the process of pregnancy in women, from conception to birth

For a pregnant woman, it is an extraordinary experience to feel a new life developing in her body. Even in the process, his body also felt pain or an unpleasant feeling. Pregnancy can be different for every woman, even for the same mother, one pregnancy with another pregnancy will sometimes feel different. Some Pregnancy symptoms last for weeks or months, while other discomforts are temporary or do not affect all women.

Pregnancy is a long journey. A normal pregnancy usually lasts about 40 weeks. Counted from the first day of a woman’s last menstrual period, which is about two weeks before fertilization actually occurs.Pregnancy is divided into three trimesters. Each of these periods lasts between 12 and 13 weeks. Each trimester changes occur in a pregnant woman’s body as well as in the developing fetus. For further explanation, we have summarized here from Live Science how the pregnancy process in each woman.

Fertilization and implantation

About two weeks after a woman gets her period, she and her ovulate ovaries release a mature egg. The egg can be fertilized for 12 to 24 hours after it is released as it travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.

If the egg meets a sperm cell that has entered the fallopian tube, it fuses into one cell. This process of pregnancy is known as fertilization or impregnation.

In the process of fertilization, the sex of the fetus is determined,depending on whether the egg receives an X or Y chromosome from the sperm cell. If the egg receives an X chromosome, the baby is likely to be a girl, while the Y chromosome is likely to be a boy.

According to the Cleveland Clinic, it takes about three to four days for the fertilized egg (or embryo) to move to the uterine lining to move, where it will attach to the uterine wall or implant. After the embryo implants, its cells begin to grow, eventually becoming the fetus and placenta, the tissue that carries oxygen, nutrients and hormones from the mother’s blood to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

First trimester (Week 1-12)

A woman will experience many symptoms during the first trimester as she adjusts to the hormonal changes during pregnancy. In the early weeks of pregnancy, there may not be many visible changes from the outside. But inside there were many changes.

The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), for example, is a hormone that will be present in a woman’s blood from the moment conception takes place. HCG levels can be detected in a woman’s urine about a week after she has missed her period, which is why a woman will get a positive result on a pregnancy test.

Other hormonal changes can cause symptoms in the form of increased levels of estrogen and hCG, which are responsible for nausea and vomiting otherwise known as morning sickness which women usually feel during the first few months of pregnancy. Despite its name, morning sickness can occur at any time of the day.

During the first trimester, pregnant women will also feel tired more easily than usual, which is a symptom associated with increased levels of the hormone progesterone, which can increase sleepiness. Pregnant women will also urinate frequently as their uterus grows and puts pressure on their bladder.

In early pregnancy, a woman’s breasts will feel softer and appear to swell. This is another side effect of rising pregnancy hormone levels. The areola will also become darker and larger.

A pregnant woman’s digestive system can also slow down to increase the absorption of beneficial nutrients. But reduced mobility of the digestive system can also cause common complaints such as heartburn, constipation, bloating and gas.

Many parts of the body will work harder during pregnancy, including the heart. The heart rate will increase to pump more blood to the uterus, to supply it to the fetus. The more blood that circulates to a woman’s face, the brighter her skin will appear. This condition is described as a “pregnancy glow.”

In addition to physical changes in a woman’s body, emotions will also experience ups and downs in the early months of pregnancy and throughout the pregnancy process.

Embryo/fetus development in the first trimester

During the first month of pregnancy, the heart and lungs begin to develop. Arms, legs, brain, spinal cord and nerves also begin to form. About a month after becoming pregnant, an apea size embryo appears.

Around the second month of pregnancy, the embryo began to grow to the size of a kidney bean, he explained. In addition, the shape of the ankles, wrists, fingers and eyelids appears. Then the genitals and inner ear also begin to develop.

After the eighth week of pregnancy and until birth occurs, the developing baby is called a fetus. By the end of the second month, eight to 10 major fetal organs will have formed. At this stage of pregnancy, it is very important for pregnant women to avoid harmful substances. The first trimester is also the period when most miscarriages or birth defects occur.

During the third month of pregnancy, bones and muscles begin to grow, buds for future teeth appear and fingers and toes grow. The intestines begin to form and the skin is almost transparent.

second trimester (Week 13-27)

In the second trimester, some of the unpleasant effects of early pregnancy begin to diminish or disappear as a woman’s body adjusts to changing hormone levels. Sleep can be an easier word and energy levels can increase.

Nausea and vomiting usually get better and go away. But other symptoms may appear as the fetus continues to grow and develop. Women can feel more pressure on the pelvis, so it feels heavy as if something is weighing on it.

A baby bump that is more noticeable as the uterus grows beyond a woman’s pelvis, and the skin on her enlarged belly will also itch when stretched. When the fetus gets bigger and a woman’s pregnancy gets heavier, her body can also experience back pain.

Between the 16th and 18th week of pregnancy, a mother can feel movement in the fetus for the first time, which is known as acceleration. If a woman has had babies before, she is likely to feel the fetus kicking, twisting or turning more quickly.

Fetal development in the second trimester

In the second trimester, the fetus grows a lot and is between 3 and 5 inches long. Between 18 and 22 weeks, an ultrasound can reveal the gender of the baby, if parents want to know this information in advance.

In the fourth month of pregnancy, the eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails and neck will form, and the skin will appear wrinkled. In addition, during the fourth month, the arms and legs can bend, the kidneys begin to work and can produce urine, and the fetus can swallow and hear.

In the fifth month of pregnancy, the fetus will become more active and a pregnant woman can also feel its movements. The fetus sleeps and also wakes up with regular cycles. Fine hair (called lanugo) and a waxy layer (called vernix) cover and protect the thin skin of the fetus.

In the sixth month of pregnancy, hair begins to grow, eyes begin to open and the brain develops rapidly. Although the lungs are fully formed, this organ is not yet functional.

Third trimester (weeks 28-40)

During the third trimester, when a woman’s enlarged uterus presses against her diaphragm, she may feel short of breath because the lungs have little room to expand. His ankles, hands, feet and face may also swell as he retains more fluid and slows down his blood circulation.

The expectant mother must urinate more often because more pressure will be placed on her bladder. He may also experience frequent back pain and more pain in the hips and pelvis. This is because this joint will prepare to give birth.

The face may experience dark spots on the skin, and stretch marks may appear on the abdomen, thighs, breasts and back. Varicose veins can also appear at this time.

In the third trimester, a woman’s breasts may leak colostrum, a yellow fluid, in preparation for breastfeeding. The baby will also fall lower on his stomach.

False labor, known as Braxton-Hicks contractions, can occur as a woman nears her due date. During the last weeks of pregnancy it can be difficult to find a comfortable sleeping position, so you may feel tired.

Fetal development in the third trimester

In the seventh month of pregnancy, the fetus begins to kick and twitch, and can even respond to light and sound, such as music. Fetal eyes can also open and close.

During the eighth month of pregnancy, the fetus’s weight will increase very rapidly. The bones harden, but the skull remains soft and flexible. Parts of the brain begin to form, and the fetus may also hiccup.

The ninth month is the pregnancy period, and the fetus prepares to be born with its head down in the woman’s pelvis. The fetal lungs are now fully mature to prepare themselves to function on their own. The fetus’s weight also continues to increase rapidly.

Read also: Recognize the Characteristics and Dangers of Leaking Amniotic Fluid

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