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Broken Bones (Fractures): Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention

A fracture is a break in a bone, which can range from a slight crack to a break. Fractures can be transverse, extend in several places or in several parts. Usually, fractures occur when the bones are subjected to excessive force or pressure. If you think you have a fracture, see a doctor right away.

Fractures are conditions that have several different ways of breaking a bone; for example, a fracture that does not damage surrounding tissue or tear the skin is called a closed fracture. On the other hand, the one that breaks the surrounding skin and penetrates the skin is known as open fracture or open fracture. Compound fractures are generally more serious than simple fractures because by definition they can become infected.

Types of fractures

Here are different types of fractures or fractures to distinguish between conditions, including:

1. Avulsion fracture

This type of fracture is an injury to the bone where a tendon or ligament attaches to the bone. When an avulsion fracture occurs, a tendon or ligament pulls on a piece of bone. Avulsion fractures can occur anywhere on the body, but are more common in certain locations.

2. Fracture comminutive

Is a bone broken or splintered into more than two parts. Because sufficient force and energy can break bones, this type of fracture occurs after trauma such as a car accident.

3. Compression fracture

This type of fracture usually occurs in a bony prominence in the spine. For example, the front of the spine can become brittle due to osteoporosis.

4. Fracture-luxation

A serious injury where the fracture and the dislocated joint occur together. Usually loose pieces of bone get stuck between the ends of the dislocated bone and may need to be surgically removed before the dislocation can be repaired.

5. Fracture GreenStick

Part of the bone is broken on one side, but not completely because the rest of the bone can bend. This condition is usually more common in children, whose bones are softer and more elastic.

6. Hairline fracture

A hairline fracture, also called a stress fracture, is a small crack or severe bruise in the bone. This type of fracture is most common in athletes, especially athletes in sports that require running and jumping. People with osteoporosis can also experience hairline fractures.

7. Fracture impaction

This is similar to a compression fracture, but it occurs in the same bone. It is a closed fracture that occurs when pressure is applied to both ends of the bone causing it to split into two pieces which are held together. This type of fracture usually occurs in people who have been involved in a car accident and have fallen.

8. Longitudinal fracture

This type of fracture is usually quite long and the crack is along the axis of the bone. Because these fractures always follow the axis of the bone, they are usually nondisplaced fractures. Fractures can be divided into two or more fracture lines.

9. Oblique fracture

Is a relatively common fracture in which the bone is broken diagonally to the long axis of the bone. Oblique fractures vary in severity, depending on the bone affected and the size of the fracture. Oblique fractures tend to occur in longer bones such as the femur or tibia.

10. Pathological fracture

When an underlying disease or condition has weakened the bone, leading to a fracture (fracture caused by an underlying disease or condition that weakens the bone).

11. Spiral fracture

This spiral fracture, also known as a torsion fracture, is a type of complete fracture. These fractures occur due to rotational or torsion forces.

12. Stress fracture

East a small fracture in the bone. Fine cracks appear due to repeated pressure, usually caused by excessive use of the limbs. Most stress fractures occur in the bones of the foot and lower leg, which are the weight-bearing organs of the body.

13. Fracture of the torus (Loop)

The bone is deformed but not fractured. More common in children. These bone fractures are painful but stable.

14. Transverse fracture

Next comes a specific type of fracture in which the break is perpendicular to the long plane of the bone. Transverse fractures usually occur as a result of a strong force applied perpendicular to the long axis of the bone. These fractures can also result from stress fractures where many microscopic fractures form in the bone as a result of repeated stresses, such as running.

Causes of Bone Fractures

You may be at risk of developing a fracture if the bone is under more stress or force than it can withstand. This style usually occurs suddenly or is very intense. The forces determine the severity of the fracture.

Some common causes of bone fractures include:

  • autumn
  • Impact hits your body directly
  • Traumatic events, such as a car accident or gunshot wound
  • Sports injuries.

Bone fracture symptoms

Most broken bones or fractures are accompanied by severe pain at the time of the initial injury. It can get worse when you move or touch the injured area. In some cases, you may even pass out from the pain. You may also feel dizzy or cold from the shock.

Other signs and symptoms of a potential fracture include:

  • A crackling sound when the injury occurs
  • Swelling, redness and bruising in the injured area
  • Difficulty supporting the weight of the body with the injured area
  • The deformity is visible in the area of ​​the injury
  • Angulation (the affected area may bend at an unusual angle)
  • If the fracture is open, there may be bleeding
  • In some cases, you may see the broken bone puncture your skin
  • looks pale
  • Feeling sick and nauseous.

Diagnosis of bone fractures

The doctor will perform a physical exam, identify signs and symptoms, and make a diagnosis. The patient will be interviewed, or friends, relatives and witnesses if the patient is unable to communicate properly, – about the circumstances that led to the injury or could have caused it.

Apart from this, the doctor will often do x-rays. In some cases, an MRI or CT scan may also be done.

Fracture healing is a natural process, in most cases it will happen automatically. The treatment of fractures generally aims to ensure the best function of the injured part after healing.

Read too: Get to Know Sensitive Skin and How to Take Care of it

Treatment of bone fractures

If you are diagnosed with a fracture, your treatment plan will depend on your body type and area.

1. Stabilizer broken bones

Usually, the doctor will try to put the broken pieces of bone back into their original position and stabilize the bones as they heal. It is important to keep the pieces of damaged bone still until they are healed.

During the healing process, new bone forms around the edges of the broken pieces. If the bones are properly aligned and stable, the new bone will eventually connect the pieces.

2. The use of gypsum

Your doctor may use a cast to stabilize your broken bone. Your cast is most likely castor fiber distant. This will help keep the injured area stable and prevent bone lumps damaged to move while the fracture heals.

3. Use of pulleys

In rare cases, you may need traction to stabilize the injured area. The pull stretches the muscles and tendons around your bones.

Your doctor will treat the fracture using a system of pulleys and weights positioned in a metal frame above your bed. This system creates a gentle pulling motion that the doctor can use to stabilize the injured area.

4. Surgery

For complex fractures, you may need surgery. The doctor may use open reduction and internal fixation or external fixation to keep the bones immobile.

In open reduction and internal fixation, your doctor will repositionorwill reduce the piece of bone broken in the normal line of the bone. Then they connector repair broken bones.This method is carried out using screws, metal plates or both. In some cases, the doctor may insert a rod into the center of your bone.

In external fixation, the doctor will place pins or screws in the bone above and below the area of ​​the fracture. The doctor will connect these pins of the screws to a metal stabilizing rod positioned outside your skin. The rod will hold the bone in place while it heals.

5. Drugs for broken bones

Doctors may also prescribe fracture medications to control pain, fight infection, or manage other symptoms or complications. After the initial phase of treatment, your doctor may recommend physical therapy or other procedures to help your fracture heal.

Fracture prevention

Here are tips on preventing fractures or broken bones that you can apply on a daily basis:

1. Nutrition and sun

The body basically needs an adequate supply of calcium for bone health. You can get good sources of calcium from milk, yogurt, cheese, and dark green leafy vegetables.

The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D by basking in the sun (preferably in the morning), eating eggs and fatty fish.

2. Physical activity

The more often you practice weight-bearing, the stronger and denser your bones become. Exercises that strengthen your bones such as running, walking, jogging, jumping, and dancing, or any exercise that can strengthen bones. This way you can avoid fractures.

3. Menopause

Estrogen is a hormone that regulates calcium in women. This hormone declines during menopause, making calcium control much more difficult. Therefore, women should take special care of their bones during and after menopause.

The following tips can help reduce your risk of osteoporosis after menopause:

  1. If you are addicted to tobacco, immediately stop completely
  2. Do short weight training every week
  3. Avoid alcohol
  4. Bask in the sun often
  5. Make sure you eat a calcium-rich diet. For those of you who have difficulty consuming foods containing calcium, your doctor may suggest taking calcium supplements.

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